OUR TEAM

OUR TEAM

St Michael North East
St Michael North East

MIA AMOR MOTTLEY-BLP LEADER

BLP LEADER
Constituency Office: St Michael North East
Phone:

ST. ANDREW
ST. ANDREW

GEORGE PAYNE

ST. ANDREW
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST. THOMAS
ST. THOMAS

CYNTHIA FORDE

Cynthia Forde is a Barbadian politician and former member of Cabinet.

Contact Info:
Constituency Office:
Phone: 1 (246) 425-1757

EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION

Cynthia Yvonne Forde was born on 1 March 1952, she was educated at the Modern High School and Erdiston Teacher Training College. She is also a graduate of the Licentiate College of Preceptors.

She has also pursued courses in Early Children Education in Israel, the Barbados Institute of Management and Productivity and in Industrial Relations in Washington, D.C.

CAREER

Her work experience includes that of a cashier for one year and of a primary school teacher for 25 years.

She is a member of the Progressive Credit Union Ltd., the Association of Friends of Gordon Cummins District Hospital, Holy Innocents’ Church Council, St. Thomas Community Independence Committee. She is a member and former executive member of the Barbados Union of Teachers and is currently 1st Vice Chairman of the Barbados Labour Party.

At the community level she has been an adviser to the St. Thomas Festival Committee, the co-ordinator of Woman Against Poverty, an ex-officio member of the Cane Garden Neighbourhood Watch, the Central Relief Organisation, a leader of the Barbados Boys’ Scouts, the Girl Guides’ and President of the Parent-Teacher Association of The Alleyne School. In addition, she was secretary of Sharon Primary PTA.

Forde was Senator and Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Education, Youth Affairs & Culture in 1994 to 2001. In September 2001, she was elected in a by-election to serve as the Member of Parliament for the constituency of St. Thomas, on a Barbados Labour Party (BLP) ticket. In 2001, she joined the Cabinet as Minister of State in the Ministry of Education Youth Affairs and Sport, a position that she held until 2008.

Forde was reelected to the Barbados House of Assembly in the 2008 and 2013 General Elections.

Outside of politics, Forde’s record of voluntary service includes work with the Scouts and Brownies as well as Friends of the Gordon Cummins District Hospital. She was a Synod Representative of the Anglican Diocese from 1997-2009 as well as being the Superintendent of the Holy Innocent Sunday School. Forde was also a member of the Sharon Parent Teacher Association and was President of the Alleyne School Parent Teacher Association for five years.

PERSONAL LIFE

Forde is the mother of a son and grandmother of four children.

ST JOSEPH
ST JOSEPH

DALE MARSHALL

ST JOSEPH
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST GEORGE NORTH
ST GEORGE NORTH

GLINE CLARKE

ST GEORGE NORTH
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST GEORGE SOUTH
ST GEORGE SOUTH

DWIGHT SUTHERLAND

Dwight Sutherland is an engineer. He is married with one son.

Contact Info: dwightsgs@gmail.com
Constituency Office:
Phone: 1 (246) 247-2626 mobile / 1 (246) 435-4400 work

UP CLOSE WITH DWIGHT SUTHERLAND

What is your passion?
Doing community service. I got it from my father, and he from his.

When have you been most satisfied in your life?
When I have the opportunity to impact people on a personal level through advice and support, and see them empowered as a result of it.

Who is your role model, and why?
My role model is my grandfather Stephen Sutherland. He was a renaissance man. He was a ‘village vet’ helping Ellerton and surrounding communities with difficult births and sick animals. He was a farmer and a well digger, and was generous with his produce and skills. A devout Christian, he founded the Ellerton Gospel Hall and schooled in me in the value, dignity and respect that comes from serving your community. His constant refrain to me as I came into manhood was: ‘To whom much is given – much is expected’.

What things do you not like to do?
Going to the movies. I fall asleep no matter how good the picture.

What project or accomplishment would you consider to be the most significant in your life, and why?
My marriage. It’s been 20 years and my wife has stood by my side through good times and bad. I credit her support and encouragement for my ability to invest so much of my time and resources to the community that I serve.

What is the biggest misconception people have about you?
People think that my political success is due to my family’s popularity. But my success comes from hard work, relentlessly pounding the pavements, being responsive to constituents, and prayer.

What are your biggest pet peeves?
I do not like to be late, and I do not like people to be late for meetings with me. It reflects a lack of planning and organization.

What talent or skill do you have that most people don’t know about?
I love to teach. I taught chemistry, Maths and Integrated Science at Harrison College – Marsha Caddle was one of my students. I also taught international business for five years at UWI. I enjoy sharing knowledge and interacting with students.

Why should Barbadians vote for you?
St. George South residents should vote for me because they now know that representation comes from the heart and requires hard-work and sacrifice. They have seen my availability and responsiveness to their range of needs. In the past five years I have implemented a wide range of community education, welfare, music and sporting programmes.

As a result of neglect of the community by the DLP government, I mobilized youth, artisans and equipment to undertake community self-help initiatives through Operations Response, and addressed de-bushing, repairs of homes of the elderly, coverage of open well, and environment/safety issues across the constituency. I also positively impacted families and individuals through personal advocacy, and helped them to navigate the bureaucracy.

How well can you cook? Please explain.
I am an excellent cook and enjoy cooking. I find it relaxing. I am particularly good at preparing meats and soups. I also like cooking with my son – its our special time as I demonstrate that family is teamwork.

What is your least favourite thing about humanity?
I do not like the intentional infliction of pain and hurt particularly children, the elderly and people with disabilities.

How do you handle criticism?
It depends on how the criticism is presented, as I do not like negativity. I welcome constructive criticism presented as such, but random unsolicited criticism I dismiss as meaningless and an effort to tear-down.

Humans make mistakes. What mistake did you make that you have learnt from, and now that lesson is part of your personal philosophy?
I once took a job and though I pursued my professional obligations, my conscience bothered me about things happening in the company, so I resigned. I learnt that I have to be true to myself in all that I do.

ST JAMES CENTRAL
ST JAMES CENTRAL

KERRIE SYMMONDS

ST JAMES CENTRAL
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST JAMES NORTH
ST JAMES NORTH

EDMUND HINKSON

ST JAMES NORTH
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST JAMES SOUTH
ST JAMES SOUTH

SANDRA HUSBANDS

Sandra Husbands is a business consultant and trainer.

Contact Info: bdsinc@caribsurf.com
Constituency Office:
Phone: 1 (246) 233-6385 mobile / 1 (246) 548-4189 work

UP CLOSE WITH SANDRA HUSBANDS

What is your passion?
To work with people to enable them to develop their potential and have the opportunity and the tools to live their best life.

When have you been most satisfied in your life?
Working with companies and their workers to transform the effectiveness of their leadership and their systems. Working with employees to reshape their perspectives so they work smarter and benefit more. It gets my adrenalin pumping, and gets me on a high.

Who is your role model, and why?
Nelson Mandela, because of his vision and principle in a threatening and protracted situation. He mastered himself so he could master his world. He fulfilled his destiny by staying true to his purpose.

What things do you not like to do?
Washing dishes and writing reports. I would scrub all the floors first.

What project or accomplishment would you consider to be the most significant in your life, and why?
Working on the transformation of the Small Business Association, leading it from obscurity to prominence. It was better organised, with more benefits, members, and revenue. I lead the team to work with government to transform the small business sector.

What is the biggest misconception people have about you?
That my niceness is weakness. What people gradually discover is that I am silken steel.

What are your biggest pet peeves?
People unfairing others, whether kids on the playground; leaders misusing power against the interest of their people, or positions of dominance used to oppress the weak.

What talent or skill do you have that most people don’t know about?
I love to play bass steelpans and I am a trained announcer. I once did a basic service on my car, getting under it, changing the oil, rotating my tyres.

Why should Barbadians vote for you?
I have a vision to make Barbados work again for everyone. Everyone will have a role to re-build, nurture and grow our country so it is strong to face the future. This means working from the ground up with families, communities, businesses and our national institutions.

How well can you cook? Please explain.
I am a sometimish cook, sometimes it is really, really good, like my creole breadfruit, bakes, fishcakes, cheesecake, ackee and saltfish, and others times not. My ‘not so good times’, my husband calls ‘research and development’ time, which drives him to the door 30 minutes after giving it a try to head to Hammies for a pork or ham cutter.

What is your least favourite thing about humanity?
Our inability to see that we can actually rebalance our societies in a way that gives each person the opportunity to thrive and flourish by properly managing its ebbs and flows so that equity and justice can prevail.

How do you handle criticism?
In my younger days, not well, I would become defensive. But over years of growth and change, I have learned how to extract what I need to improve me, even if the criticism is not given well or is intended to be destructive.

Humans make mistakes. What mistake did you make that you have learnt from, and now that lesson is part of your personal philosophy?
Judging others. I have learned to step back and understand what causes a person to behave as he/she does, and overtime this has helped me to acquire compassion and patience, without allowing myself to become a victim to the weakness. I am working now on more wisdom in not ‘interfering’ in their learning process, but allowing them to learn as I learn to manage my own weakness.

ST. LUCY
ST. LUCY

PETER PHILLIPS

Contact Info:
Constituency Office: Ellis Road, Checker Hall
Phone: 1 (246) 571-7734 and 1 (246) 231-9365

Peter Phillips wants St Lucy to be the most envied constituency in Barbados with quality roads, an efficient bus service and a functional town centre to provide various services to constituents. He hopes to do this with your support.

A born and bred St Lucy man, Peter hails from Pie Corner and has lived in the constituency he now seeks to represent his entire life. Though a banker by profession, Peter is best known for his 20-plus years of community work throughout St Lucy. As the longest serving chairperson of the St Lucy Parish Independence Committee, he led a team of dedicated volunteers which successfully executed numerous projects in the constituency including HIV/AIDS awareness, the environment, energy conservation and heritage. Furthermore, for several years Peter conducted the training sessions for St Lucy’s Parish Ambassadors.

The consistent high places earned annually by entrants is testimony to his work with the various young people. These apart, one of Peter’s pet projects for more than a decade is his partnering with the Kiwanis Club North to provide meals weekly for the less fortunate in the constituency.

A born-again Christian and committed member of Bennett’s Temple United Holy Church, Peter has spearheaded or used his influence to improve conditions for constituents in St Lucy since being nominated the Barbados Labour Party candidate in 2006. These include major renovations to St Lucy Primary School, an annex to the Half Moon Fort Primary and Selah Primary schools; assistance from the Rural Development Commission for various services and amenities for families across the constituency; expansion of bus services and the introduction of new ones to Coconut Hall, Bishop’s Road, Rockfield and Round-the-Rock; and the erection of street lights in districts such as Alleynedale, Round-the-Rock, Chance Hall and St Clements to name a few.

Peter Phillips is a worker. Put him to work for you and the betterment of St Lucy.

ST. PETER
ST. PETER

COLIN JORDAN

Colin Jordan is a Seventh Day Adventist Church leader and a hotel executive

Contact Info: colinj@caribsurf.com
Constituency Office:
Phone: 1 (246) 262-1249 mobile / 1 (246) 432-1384 work

UP CLOSE WITH COLIN JORDAN

What is your passion?
I love being involved in programmes and projects that develop people. I also love current affairs and observing international politics.

When have you been most satisfied in your life?
I am very happy and satisfied with my family, especially the progress of our daughters and how they are following their own paths. I was also happy to have completed and published a book on the history of my church.

Who is your role model, and why?
Outside of Jesus, my dad is my role model. He exposed me to many experiences and taught me much of what I use as I live my life. I like the Biblical character Paul. I see in him a real person, imperfections and all, who did not allow defects to diminish his desire for growth and helping others to grow. Paul was also unafraid to speak up and speak out when it was necessary.

What things do you not like to do?
It would have to be washing vehicles. I don’t like that!

What project or accomplishment would you consider to be the most significant in your life, and why?
The election by my peers to be President of the Barbados Hotel and Tourism Association (BHTA) is one of my significant accomplishments. Of course, that is surpassed by being selected as the Barbados Labour Party candidate for my home parish, St. Peter. I expect to have a different response for you within eight months.

What is the biggest misconception people have about you?
Some people might be surprised to find out that I like a good joke and that I like to “clown” around.

What are your biggest pet peeves?
(1) Littering and anything else that degrades and destroys the environment; (2) being disrespectful to others; and (3) the large amount of sugar people consume.

What talent or skill do you have that most people don’t know about?
I sing tenor.

Why should Barbadians vote for you?
I am a genuine person – what you see is what you get. I like to see people develop and succeed. I want to assist people and provide them with opportunities to progress. I have acquired and developed some skills and competencies which I want to use to make St. Peter and Barbados a better place and create a better life for its people.

How well can you cook? Please explain.
I can boil water, fry eggs and cook macaroni.

What is your least favourite thing about humanity?
When we studied Julius Caesar at Harrison College, I became fascinated with how some people change back and forth depending only on who is speaking. I do not like when people refuse to think.

How do you handle criticism?
I like constructive criticism and surround myself with people who are prepared to be frank with their observations.

Humans make mistakes. What mistake did you make that you have learnt from, and now that lesson is part of your personal philosophy?
I hope my answer does not come over as sanctimonious, because it is not intended to be. I am human and I would have made mistakes, but I have always allowed God to lead me and sometime He leads me into (or allows me to get into) challenging situations. I always believe that He knows best and so I have never considered such developments as mistakes. I go where He leads without regretting the outcome. My mantra in life is that, while all things are not good, for those who love God and have been called by Him, all things work together for good.

ST. JOHN
ST. JOHN

CHARLES GRIFFITH

ST. JOHN
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST MICHAEL EAST
ST MICHAEL EAST

TREVOR PRESCOD

ST MICHAEL EAST
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST MICHAEL NORTH
ST MICHAEL NORTH

RONALD TOPPIN

ST MICHAEL NORTH
Constituency Office:
Phone:

CITY OF BRIDGETOWN
CITY OF BRIDGETOWN

JEFFREY BOSTIC

CITY OF BRIDGETOWN
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST MICHAEL SOUTH EAST
ST MICHAEL SOUTH EAST

SANTIA BRADSHAW

ST MICHAEL SOUTH EAST
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST MICHAEL WEST
ST MICHAEL WEST

REVEREND JOSEPH ATHERLEY

Joseph Atherley is a Bishop in the Evangelical Holiness Christian Community Church. He is a past representative of St. Michael West (1999-2008) and a former Cabinet Minister.

Contact Info: joewestjr@gmail.com
Constituency Office:
Phone: 1 (246) 235-3350 mobile / 1 (246) 429-5255 work

UP CLOSE WITH JOSEPH ATHERLEY

What is your passion?
Lending a helping hand in order to lift up others.

When have you been most satisfied in your life?
When my father and mother re-united after years of separation.

Who is your role model, and why?
My mother was because of her generosity, willingness always to help others, and her Christian devotion.

What things do you not like to do?
Being the one to have to break bad news to others and disappoint anyone who is depending on me in some vital way.

What is the biggest misconception people have about you?
That I am a “political innocent” with a “Sunday School” disposition.

What are your biggest pet peeves?
People who kick others when they are down.

What talent or skill do you have that most people don’t know about?
The ability to write plays and poetry.

Why should Barbadians vote for you?
I am a man of my word – I say what I mean and mean what I say. Besides that, I have a record of service to my constituents and my country.

How well can you cook? Please explain.
Reasonably well. I make a tasty lamb stew with rice and peas, as well as a good old Bajan soup.

What is your least favourite thing about humanity?
The uncaring attitude and the superiority complex.

How do you handle criticism?
I reflect and if it’s justified, I wheel and come again. If I don’t think it is justified, I persist with steely resolve.

Humans make mistakes. What mistake did you make that you have learnt from, and now that lesson is part of your personal philosophy?
Making poor assessments of others based on their quiet disposition, and even unimpressive physical deportment.

ST MICHAEL CENTRAL
ST MICHAEL CENTRAL

ARTHUR HOLDER

ST MICHAEL CENTRAL
Constituency Office:
Phone: 1 (246) 231-9795

Arthur Holder epitomises the Barbados Dream. He rose from humble origins, benefitted from free education, and worked consistently hard to achieve his desired goal and become a force to be reckoned with.

Through his life journey as a teacher, social worker, lawyer and now politician, Arthur has demonstrated integrity and caring for his fellow man – key qualities for higher service as the St Michael Central parliamentary representative.

Because of the opportunities Barbados provided Arthur, he feels every Barbadian deserves a similar chance. And that’s why he’s in politics. He intends to create more opportunities and improve the lives of those born in humble circumstances like himself. That’s why too, he is a member of the Barbados Labour Party team, for he sees the party as the most progressive political organisation in Barbados that has always championed the rights of the less fortunate.

Arthur’s work to date is testimony to his philosophy. As an entrepreneur and educator, having founded The Urban Adult College, he has assisted thousands of young school leavers improving their academic achievements through education.

As a trained social worker, Arthur worked with the Child Care Board and the National Council of Substance Abuse with responsibility for overseeing and implementing community projects aimed at providing alternatives to drug involvement for the youth. He also served as the local consultant for the United Nations International Drug Control Programme to eradicate drug use in targeted communities. And as an attorney, Arthur has done significant pro-bono work on behalf of juveniles brought before the Criminal Courts, and uses such opportunities to counsel the youth and their families.

Arthur has a wider vision for Saint Michael Central. His focus will be on developing constituents’ skills to empower them to be independent and self-reliant, and to be confident to seek new and emerging opportunities.

Arthur brings proven ability, truthfulness, reliability and a record of caring public service to St Michael Central.

He is the perfect fit for these uncertain times.

ST MICHAEL WEST CENTRAL
ST MICHAEL WEST CENTRAL

IAN GOODING – EDGHILL

ST MICHAEL WEST CENTRAL
Constituency Office:
Phone:

ST MICHAEL SOUTH
ST MICHAEL SOUTH

KIRK HUMPHREY

Contact Info:
Constituency Office:
Phone:

Kirk Humphrey understands the realities of his constituents— his personal and professional story are a testament to his commitment.

Raised by a single mother, life was never easy for him and his seven siblings. “I often wondered why some of the most decent and hard-working people I knew were struggling. It was an injustice that always plagued me and drove me to focus on Development and Public Policy in my studies. I eventually learned that there are structural disadvantages built into our society that have to be addressed.”

With two Master’s Degrees, one from the London School of Economics in ‘Social Policy and Planning for Developing Countries’, and the second, a Master’s in Public Administration with a dual concentration in ‘Public Policy and Leadership’ and ‘Leadership and Human Rights’ from Harvard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, Kirk has put his academic preparation into practice for the past 15-years.

Kirk’s professional experience has spanned both the public and the private sector and has included senior posts with International Development Agencies, the Child Care Board, the Bureau of Social Policy, Research and Planning in the social sector.

Kirk has worked tirelessly on community initiatives and is an active member of a number of organizations that focus on social justice. His main interests lie in poverty alleviation, youth issues, elderly affairs and the environment. He has also recently been focusing on the effect of gender inequalities on development. Kirk is passionate about the arts, having performed with the Pinelands Creative Workshop and has won poetry awards at NIFCA.

Says Kirk, “The issues that have affected me all of my life affect the people of St. Michael South. I feel at home here and will work every day to make life better for residents. I have come to know many of my constituents; I know their talents and strengths and I want to empower them and help them to develop. Leadership is the missing ingredient and that is what I will bring.”

ST MICHAEL NORTH WEST
ST MICHAEL NORTH WEST

NEIL ROWE

Neil Rowe is a community activist who was born in Brighton and grew up in the wider Black Rock, St. Michael area.

Contact Info: neilroweone@gmail.com
Constituency Office:
Phone:1 (246) 850-9839 mobile / 1 (246) 572-2713 work

UP CLOSE WITH NEIL ROWE

What is your passion?
To make a positive difference in the lives of people.

When have you been most satisfied in your life?
When The Love Thy Neighbour Charity was formed as it was a dream of mine to help the less fortunate in my community in a structured way.

Who is your role model, and why?
Tom Adams, because of his vision for Barbados and the direct positive impact he had on the lives of people.

What things do you not like to do?
Give bad news.

What is the biggest misconception people have about you?
That I am a millionaire and an introvert.

What are your biggest pet peeves?
The lack of unity amongst the youth.

Why should Barbadians vote for you?
I will represent everyone equally and, through the social policies of the Barbados Labour Party, will help to create opportunities to empower people.

How well can you cook? Please explain.
Self-praise is no praise, but my mum taught me to cook.

What is your least favourite thing about humanity?
The lack of love amongst each other, because at the end of the day we all have a limited time on this Earth to make a difference.

How do you handle criticism?
With an open mind and humility.

Humans make mistakes. What mistake did you make that you have learnt from, and now that lesson is part of your personal philosophy?
Always be a leader and not a follower.

ST MICHAEL SOUTH CENTRAL
ST MICHAEL SOUTH CENTRAL

MARSHA CADDLE

Marsha Caddle is a bilingual economist whose areas of specialization are institutional and human development economics, including governance, financing for development and poverty, inequality, social protection and labour markets.

Contact Info: marsha@marshacaddlebarbados.com
www.facebook.com/marshacaddle
Instagram/Twitter:@marshacaddle
Constituency Office: Corner of Grosvenor Road and Tweedside Main Road, St. Michael
Mobile: 1 (246) 234-3000
Constituency Office:   
1 (246) 622-2382

UP CLOSE WITH MARSHA CADDLE

What is your passion? 
Creating, I suppose. Writing, music, dance, cooking, even in policy work, the opportunity to be creative is what excites me. And when I can do that in a space with other people, that’s the magic. That’s why despite where we find ourselves, despite this last, lost decade in Barbados’ development where we have slipped so far back, it is an exciting time. To now have the opportunity to come together and create real solutions in education, in health care, in governance that are fit for purpose and fit for this time – that’s what I’m passionate about.

When have you been most satisfied in your life?
Hard to say, because I’m big on moments. I can usually find glimpses of satisfaction in almost anything. But I like feeling relevant and practical. And I love the outdoors – hiking, walking, running outside. I worked on a project where I could do both of those things. We were working with a community in Central America, trying to understand why the things the state was doing to try and reduce unemployment weren’t working. So we spent a lot of time figuring out with men and women in that community what they needed in order to earn more income and be more productive. Every day I walked quite a ways to work with some supplies in a backpack because the days were long. We cooked outdoors, swam a lot. A lot of life was outside. And we were still there when more and more people started working, making money, being able to send their children to school. I felt like we were doing something useful. And we had a great time doing it.

Who is your role model, and why?
I find inspiration in the people around me who live with purpose, and on their own terms. My mother gave me my work ethic, I think. Her singular focus was giving the three of us more than she had. When we didn’t have colouring books she drew pictures for us to colour. She took us on the bus to the public library every two weeks. She took us to the beach on the bus too, which, with three little girls and all that sand, is a pretty hilarious exercise. It was about giving us varied experiences and our best chance at success, even though we had very little. She worked harder than anyone I have ever seen in my 39 years.Mia has inspired me ever since she became Minister of Education in her 20s. I remember us at school thinking how cool it was that someone close to our age was helping determine policy. It was a big deal for us. Having met her and working with her years later, I am inspired by her humility, purpose, compassion, patience, sheer brilliance, and what I call sleeves-rolled-up leadership. She leads every battle from in front. And for her, everyone matters and is of value.

What things do you not like to do?
I love to do laundry, but I do not like to hang/fold it.

What is the biggest misconception people have about you? 
That I’m serious. My friends know me as the joker in the crew. The one who loves to laugh and make people laugh, and who loves a good party – Crop Over is the best thing on earth. I don’t think we should take ourselves too seriously. We should work hard, with purpose, on something that matters. And we should try to enjoy the moments that make us human. This life is full of wonder, even if it is not always easy.

What talent or skill do you have that most people don’t know about?
I suppose by now most people know that I have danced most of my life. Several forms, but contemporary African is probably my favourite form now. There is nothing like dancing to drums and other percussion. And I’ve been involved in musical theatre: writing and singing music. But I asked a Jamaican friend how she would answer this question about me and she said “your third language (I speak Spanish) is Jamaican!” I listened to so much dancehall and reggae growing up (still do) that at school, when the others didn’t understand lyrics, they would come to me. Is that a skill? I’m not sure. Oh and I’m great with dogs. I train mine in a bit of obedience and agility, and get pretty good results. I prefer large and giant breeds but have hardly met a dog I didn’t love. In fact, I love animals, from frogs to elephants. Except those giant snails. Can’t handle those at all.

Why should Barbadians vote for you?
I love this country and I’m willing to work hard for it. This idea that pol